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Sensonor manufacture MEMS vibratory gyros based on the Coriolis effect. Below is a model of the Butterfly Gyro with two masses which are driven (excited) to oscillate at a resonance frequency close to 10 kHz. When a rotation of the gyro around the sensitive axis is applied, the two masses will deflect in a direction different to the oscillation. This is called the detection motion, which ultimately gives the angular rate sensed by the gyro.

 

No, the STIM gyros are mounted to the housings before calibration which is necessary for achieving the high performance they have. Housings cannot be modified.

Sensonor can in some cases perform FW updates. The STIM products are not designed for mechanical repair.

Sensor’s standard CoC is available with each shipment for customers that require this.

The STIM firmware can only be updated by Sensonor at our facilities.

Yes, the gyros (as well as accelerometers and inclinometers where available) use internal temperature measurements to continuously compensate the output signal.

This is the time needed from power-on or reset to clearing of the start-up bit (bit 6 in the status byte). During this period the output data should be regarded as non-valid. Details for each product is given by the product specifications.

STIM202 is designed with internal mechanical dampers for operation in environments with shocks, e.g. direct mounting on remote weapon stations. STIM210 does not have mechanical dampers and also has twice as high data output rate compared to STIM202.

Bias instability is measured by Allan Variance method, according to IEEE std. 952.  

  • Test is performed at room temperature (~25°C)
  • Power is applied 2 hours prior to data collection
  • Data are collected for 18 hours
  • The root Allan variance is plotted and the bias instability is defined as the lowest point of the curve.

ARW is the white (random) noise of the sensor and is read from the root Allan variance curve at 1 second averaging time.

STIM uses cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) low pass filters with linear phase response. Filter bandwidth (-3dB) is user configurable from 16Hz to 262Hz.

Group delay is the processing time of the signal through the low pass filter. The delay depends on filter bandwidth.

Time Of Validity (TOV) is for synchronization of datagram transmission with external events. TOV falling edge occurs synchronous to the sample rate. Raising edge occurs after last bit of datagram.

No, STIM does not operate as a standalone AHRS.

The gyros can output angular rate, or integrated and incremental angle.

The accelerometers can output acceleration, or integrated and incremental velocity.

The integrated angle output is the angle since start-up or reset. The integrated angle is limited to ±4°, at which points a wrap-around occur.

Incremental angle is the change in angle since the previous sample.

E.g.: (100 °/s) / (125 sample/s) = 0.8°.

STIM IMUs does not output position, but is used in several positioning systems.

One of the leading GNSS/INS system builders obtain about 6 m horizontal position error after 60 seconds during a GNSS outage.

Verify that the bit rate settings of the computer serial port are in accordance with the STIM communication settings.

This error message occur when the EVK software don’t detect the startup datagrams. This happens when the STIM device is powered before the “Apply voltage” switch is flipped when connecting the STIM to the EVK SW.

Disconnect the STIM and make sure the correct procedure is followed when connecting as described by the EVK user manual.

Sensonor can help with examples e.g. for converting data bytes to angular rate measurements or how to calculate the cyclic redundancy check (CRC).

The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common way of making sure the data has been correctly transmitted – i.e. that the received data is identical to what was transmitted. The STIM calculates and output a check-number based on the contents of the transmitted data itself. The receiver will perform the same CRC calculation and compare to the received CRC to verify that the transmission was successful.

Accelerometer measures the acceleration it experiences 
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Attitude Heading Reference System. 3-axis sensors that provide heading, attitude and yaw information for aircraft. Replaces traditional mechanical gyroscopic flight instruments 
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Silicon and glass substrates are bonded at elevated temperature and with a high DC potential creating an electrical field. Sodium ions between the substrate surfaces are forming a solid chemical bond.

Bipolar junction transistors and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor technology into a single device 
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Method of depositing a monocrystalline film on a monocrystalline substrate 
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The frequency with which a component fails 
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Failure occurred during normal operation by end user

Fiber Optic Gyroscope. Uses the interference of light to detect mechanical rotation 
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Pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis 
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Global Positioning System is a navigation satellite system 
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Device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of angular momentum 
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Inertial Measurement Unit. The main component of inertial guidance systems 
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The resistance of mass, i.e. any physical object, to a change in its state of motion 
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Inertial Navigation System. Navigation aid that uses a computer and motion sensors to continuously calculate the position, orientation, and velocity of vehicles 
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Leadless Chip Carrier. Type of packaging for integrated circuits that has no "leads", but instead rounded pins through the edges of the ceramic package 
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Wireless transmission at Low Frequency in the range of 30kHz-300kHz 
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MicroElectroMechanical System 
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Small computer on a single integrated circuit designed for small applications 
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Describes how under-damped an oscillator is. In electronic engineering, as a measure of the 'quality' in a well tuned circuit or resonator 
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Reduced Instruction Set Computer. ARM RISC - Advanced RISC Machine 
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Remotely Operated Vehicle. Underwater robot common in deepwater industries such as offshore hydrocarbon extraction. 
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Ring Laser Gyroscope. Uses interference of laser light within an optical ring to detect changes in orientation and spin 
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Technical standard defining Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Differential Interface Circuits 
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Small-Outline Integrated Circuit. Surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package 
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Serial Peripheral Interface bus. Synchronous serial data link standard that operates in full duplex mode 
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Silicon and glass substrates are bonded at elevated temperature and with a high DC potential creating an electrical field. Sodium ions between the substrate surfaces are forming a solid chemical bond.

A tactical grade IMU can be used to provide stand-alone navigation for a few minutes. Tactical grade IMU's are used extensively in the industry and defense sector due to their cost effective performance. Most often, tactical grade is used to describe gyro performance with in run bias stability in the 1°/h range and angular random walk (ARW) of 0.15 °/√h or better. Sometimes it can also be used to describe parts with in run bias stability in the range of 0. 5°/h to 5 °/h and in rare cases to include in run bias stability up to 10 °/h.

A tactical grade IMU can be used to provide stand-alone navigation for a few minutes. Tactical grade IMU's are used extensively in the industry and defense sector due to their cost effective performance. Most often, tactical grade is used to describe gyro performance with in run bias stability in the 1°/h range and angular random walk (ARW) of 0.15 °/√h or better. Sometimes it can also be used to describe parts with in run bias stability in the range of 0. 5°/h to 5 °/h and in rare cases to include in run bias stability up to 10 °/h.

Produce images of radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. 
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Remotely piloted aircraft commonly referred to as a drone. 
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Reduction in fluid pressure when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. 
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